International Women's Day: history and facts
发布日期：2022-08-23 08:07 点击次数：101
History of Women’s DaySusan B. Anthony was a political activist and an advocate of women’s rights. After the Civil War， she fought for the 14th Amendment that was meant to grant all naturalized and native-born Americans citizenship in the hope that it would include suffrage rights. Although the 14th Amendment was ratified in 1868， it still didn’t secure their vote. In 1869， the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) was founded by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony to continue the fight for women’s rights.In the early 1900s， women were experiencing pay inequality， a lack of voting rights， and they were being overworked. In response to all of this， 15，000 women marched through New York City in 1908 to demand their rights. In 1909， the first National Women’s Day was observed in accordance with a declaration by the Socialist Party of America. This was celebrated on the last Sunday of February until 1913.An International Women’s Conference was organized in August 1910 by Clara Zetkin， a German suffragist and leader in the Women’s Office. Zetkin proposed a special Women’s Day to be organized annually and International Women’s Day was honored the following year in Austria， Denmark， Germany， and Switzerland， with more than one million attending the rallies. On August 18， 1920，
the 19th Amendment was ratified and white women were granted the right to vote in the U.S.The liberation movement took place in the 1960s and the effort led to the passage of the Voting Rights Act， allowing all women the right to vote. When the internet became more commonplace， feminism and the fight against gender inequality experienced a resurgence. Now we celebrate International Women’s Day each year as we push continuously with the hope of creating a completely equal society.First key years of the movementOfficially recognized by the United Nations in 1977， International Women's Day first emerged from the activities of labour movements at the turn of the twentieth century in North America and across Europe.Why 8 March?19 March， the last Sunday of February， 15 April， and 23 February are among the key dates for the International Women’s Day movement. But where， then， did the 8th of March come from? Ask Julius Cesar and Gregory XIII! Before the Revolution， Russia had not yet adopted the Gregorian calendar， introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 to mitigate the errors of the Julian calendar， which owes its name to the Roman emperor， who had chosen it 46 years before the birth of Jesus Christ. The Gregorian calendar is used today in the large majority of countries. In 1917， 23 February in Russia thus corresponded to 8 March in the other European countries. It’s as simple as that!United Nations ObservancesThe existence of international days predates the establishment of the United Nations， but the UN has embraced them as a powerful advocacy tool. The United Nations observes designated days， weeks， years， and decades， each with a theme， or topic. By creating special observances， the United Nations promotes international awareness and action on these issues. Each international day offers many actors the opportunity to organize activities related to the theme of the day. Organizations and offices of the United Nations system， and most importantly， governments， civil society， the public and private sectors， schools， universities and， more generally， citizens， make an international day a springboard for awareness-raising actions. The majority of observances have been established by resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly， although some have been designated by UN specialized agencies. The United Nations also observes anniversaries of key events in its history.
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